Aerial Work Platform Procedure
This program has been established to, ensure the safe operation of aerial and scissor lifts; ensure that work units understand and comply with safety standards related to aerial / scissor lifts; and assign responsibilities to personnel which are necessary for successful implementation.
This program applies to all employees using aerial and scissor lift equipment.
Aerial Lifts - Any powered, mobile, vehicle-mounted device that may elevate, telescopically extend, articulate and may (or may not) rotate around a substantial axis in order to raise and support personnel to elevated job sites. Aerial lifts include extendible boom platforms; vehicle-mounted aerial ladders; articulating, rotating boom platforms; vertical self-elevating towers; cherry pickers; bucket trucks and any other equipment built in accordance with either ANSI-A92.2 (1990), Vehicle-Mounted Elevating and Rotating Aerial Devices, or ANSI-A92.5 (1992), Boom Supported Elevating Work Platforms.
Scissor Lifts - Any powered, mobile device that has a personnel work platform which is mechanically raised vertically above the carriage by means of controls on the work platform. This equipment is designed and fabricated according to either ANSI-A92.6 (1990), Self-Propelled Elevating Work Platforms, or ANSI-A92.3 (1990), Manually Propelled Elevating Aerial Platforms.
Anchorage - A secure point of attachment to be used with personal fall protection equipment.
Certified Operator - Certification of aerial/scissor lift operators at PSU is a three-step process consisting of classroom instruction, hands-on training and hands-on evaluation. Once the employee has successfully completed all three steps they are considered to be a certified operator.
Competent Trainer - An employee who has successfully completed a Train–the–Trainer or equivalent type of training program and is familiar with the type of aerial/scissor lift in their work area. A contractor or equipment vendor who has experience training aerial/scissor lift safety and operation and is familiar with the equipment is also permitted to be a Competent Trainer.
Competent Evaluator (Hands-on) - An employee in the department/work unit who is experienced and competent with the aerial/scissor lift. An employee must be familiar with the equipment and its safe operation. In order to be considered competent in regards to conducting the evaluation portion of the aerial/scissor lift training, an employee must have successfully completed the classroom portion of aerial/scissor lift training. This employee could be but is not limited to a certified operator, supervisor/manager or safety officer.
Familiarization - Providing information regarding the control functions and safety devices for the aerial /scissor lift to an operator of the equipment.
Insulated Platform - A platform designed and tested to meet the specific electrical insulation ratings consistent with the manufacturer’s identification plate.
Outriggers - Devices that increase the stability of the aerial lift platform and that are capable of lifting and leveling the aerial / scissor lift platform.
Rated Work Load - The designated capacity of the aerial platform as specified by the manufacturer.
Stabilizers - Devices that increase the stability of the aerial lift platform but are not capable of lifting or leveling the aerial / scissor lift platform.
• Ensure that responsibilities assigned within this program are carried out within their department.
• Designate individuals responsible for the implementation of this program within their department.
• Actively support this program as part of the University's overall safety effort.
• Ensure adequate funding is available to support this program.
• Be thoroughly informed of the contents of this program and its application to their areas of responsibility and authority.
• Ensure employees comply with all provisions of this program.
• Ensure employees receive training appropriate to their assigned tasks and maintain documentation of such training.
• Ensure employees are provided with and use appropriate protective equipment.
• Take prompt corrective action when unsafe conditions or practices are observed.
• Investigate injuries and incidents within their work unit related to aerial / scissor lift usage.
• Follow the safe work practices described in this program, including the use of appropriate protective equipment.
• Attend all training required by this program.
• Immediately report any unsafe conditions or concerns related to aerial / scissor lift safety to their supervisor.
Environmental Health and Safety
• Assist work units in implementing the provisions of this program.
• Approve aerial/scissor lift trainers.
• Periodically review and update this written program.
• Periodically evaluate the overall effectiveness of this program.
- Operators shall review and follow the manufacturer’s operating manual. A copy of the manual must be located on the equipment.
- Only certified operators shall operate an aerial / scissor lift.
- Operators shall follow safe work practices when operating an aerial/scissor lift; a list of common safe work practices are summarized in Appendix F.
- Every aerial/scissor lift must undergo a pre-use inspection prior to use on each shift.
- Aerial/scissor lifts not used during a shift do not have to undergo an inspection during that shift.
- Pre-use inspections must be documented using an appropriate checklist for the aerial/scissor lift similar to the one in Appendix A. Refer to the manufacturer's inspection requirements for complete inspection details.
- Completed checklists will be kept on file for a period not less than a year.
- The pre-use inspection will identify conditions that could affect the safe use of the aerial/scissor lifts. If any unsafe conditions exist, the aerial/scissor lift shall be removed from service. In order to remove an aerial/scissor lift from service, the operator shall remove the keys and place an “Out of Service” tag near the operator control panel.
- Operators must immediately report any unsafe aerial/scissor lift conditions to their supervisor. When an aerial/scissor lift has been removed from service, the operator must give the keys to the supervisor for safekeeping. The supervisor is then responsible for ensuring the necessary arrangements are made for repair.
- Only authorized personnel shall perform aerial/scissor lift repairs and adjustments. All replacement parts shall be the same design as the original or an equivalent design as designated by the manufacturer.
Battery Charging, Filling and Fueling
Charging is permitted only in designated areas.
- Warning signs shall be posted at battery charging locations that state “Caution-battery charging station, No Smoking or Open Flames” (or equivalent).
- Adequate ventilation must be present to avoid the build-up of hydrogen gas during battery charging.
- A 10 lb ABC fire extinguisher must be located within 20 feet.
- A means to protect the charging apparatus from damage from trucks must be provided.
When filling the water level of batteries the following personal protective equipment (PPE) at a minimum must be worn.
- Safety goggles or face shield w/ safety glasses, acid resistant gloves and acid resistant apron.
A properly equipped battery filling station shall have:
- An eyewash able to provide a 15 minute flow. The eyewash shall be located within 10 seconds walking distance of all battery filling areas.
- A phone or other means of communication in the event of an emergency.
Fueling (Liquid Petroleum, Gasoline, Diesel, etc)
- Signs shall be posted at fueling locations that state: “Danger – Propane, No Smoking or Open Flames” (or equivalent).
- Liquid Petroleum (LP) cylinders shall only be stored outside in a secured and protected designated rack or storage area.
When removing and attaching the connection to the LP cylinder, the following PPE (at a minimum) must be worn.
- Safety glasses and work gloves (leather or equivalent).
- LP cylinders shall be secured to the forklift before operating.
- LP cylinder connections shall be checked for leaks by the sound or smell of escaping gas.
Personal Protective Equipment
Fall protection equipment must be used as follows when operating aerial/scissor lifts.
- Operators shall be secured to the anchor point provided by the equipment manufacturer by either a self-retracting lanyard or by a lanyard short enough to prevent the employee from being ejected.
- Operators must follow manufacturer’s recommendations as to which fall protection system to use.
- The guardrail system provides fall protection. If the manufacturer has installed an anchorage point, a fall protection system (restraint, positioning, personal fall arrest system) as designated by the manufacturer’s instructions must be utilized.
- Aerial Lifts:
- Tying a lanyard off to an adjacent pole, structure, or equipment while working from an aerial lift shall not be permitted.
- Other types of personal protective equipment (PPE), such as head, eye and hand protection, shall be worn according to the task specific personal protective equipment hazard assessment.
Training must be completed prior to any use of the aerial/scissor lift. Certification of aerial/scissor lift operators at PSU is a three-step process consisting of classroom instruction, hands-on training and hands-on evaluation.
Classroom instruction, hands-on training and hands-on evaluation can be conducted by either a competent trainer in the work unit, equipment manufacturer, safety consultant and/or a vendor who specializes in aerial/scissor lift training.
- Hands-on training and hands-on evaluation portions of the training can also be conducted by an employee in the department/work unit who is experienced and competent with the aerial/scissor lift. This person could be a certified operator, supervisor/manager or safety officer.
- EHS must approve trainers.
Training must be specific to the type of aerial/scissor lift being used.
Training must cover the following:
- The purpose and use of the equipment manuals.
- That operating manuals are an integral part of the lift and must be properly stored on the vehicle.
- A pre-start inspection.
- Responsibilities associated with problems or malfunctions affecting the operation of the lift.
- Factors affecting stability.
- The purpose of placards and decals.
- Workplace inspection.
- Applicable safety rules and regulations.
- Authorization to operate.
- Operator warnings and instructions.
- Proper use of personal fall protection equipment.
- Hands-on operation.
Employees shall not be allowed to operate rented equipment unless they have been previously certified on similar equipment. Operators are also required to review the owner’s manual and shall be given ample time to become familiar with the equipment and its controls before operation is permitted. The vendor is required to review equipment with the user when the user is not familiar with the type of aerial/scissor lift.
Trainees must successfully complete hands-on training and a hands-on evaluation before being allowed to operate an aerial/scissor lift independently. Trainees will be given adequate supervision and time to learn basic operating skills.
Initial operator hands-on evaluations must be completed using the checklist found in Appendix D or equivalent.
Documented re-evaluation of each aerial/scissor lift operator will be completed at least once every three years.
- Re-evaluations can be conducted by an employee in the department/work unit who is experienced and competent with the aerial/scissor lift. This person could be a certified operator, Supervisor or EHS Officer.
Refresher training in relevant topics will be provided to an aerial/scissor lift operator when any of the following occur:
- The operator has been observed to be using the aerial/scissor lift in an unsafe manner.
- The operator has been involved in an accident or a near-miss incident.
- The operator has received an evaluation that reveals the operator is not using the aerial/scissor lift safely.
- The operator is assigned to operate a different type of equipment.
- A condition in the workplace changes in a manner that could affect safe operation of the equipment.
Contractors are required to follow all applicable OSHA regulations and manufacturer’s instructions. Contractors are not permitted to use any aerial/scissor lifts owned by the University.
- The manufacturer’s instructions regarding maintenance must be followed. (Such instructions are typically included in the owner’s manual for the aerial/scissor lifts).
- An annual inspection is required and must be conducted by an authorized person qualified as a mechanic on the type of aerial / scissor lift or one having similar design characteristics.
- Any aerial/scissor lift with an identified safety issue will be immediately removed from service.
- Maintenance performed by certified aerial/scissor lift operators will be limited to replacing/disconnecting/connecting batteries, changing fuel cylinders, adding water to batteries, replacing light bulbs and replacing stickers and decals.
- No aerial/scissor lift with a leak in the fuel system will be operated until the leak has been eliminated. Repairs to the fuel and ignition system that involve fire hazards will be conducted in a location (non-flammable) designated for such repairs.
- Any aerial/scissor that emits hazardous sparks or flames from the exhaust system will be immediately removed from service and not returned to service until the cause has been eliminated.
- Only replacement parts equivalent to the original parts are to be used.
Each department is responsible for maintaining the following records in order to meet the requirements of this program.
- A listing of all aerial/scissor lifts owned by the work unit.
A record of training which includes:
- Name of operator.
- Date of classroom training.
- Date of hands-on training.
- Date of hands-on evaluation.
- Identity of the person(s) performing the training and/or evaluation.
- Make and model of aerial/scissor lift.
- Copies of all pre-use inspection records for one year after completion.
- Copies of annual inspection records for at least three years.
- Copies of repair records for at least three years.
EHS is responsible for maintaining the following records in order to meet the requirements of this program. EHS will retain training records for training they have provided indefinitely.
Aerial Bucket Trucks
In accordance with the requirements of the University, OSHA and ANSI Standard A92.2-1990 for Vehicle-mounted Elevating and Rotating Work Platforms, the following guidelines have been established to reduce the risk of incident and personal injury when working with or in close proximity to the Terex Aerial Bucket Truck.
Only authorized employees shall be able to operate the vehicle and the articulating aerial platform.
Throughout this policy, the following terms will be defined as:
- Authorized – An employee of the University who has the education, training and certification to operate the equipment specified within this document.
- Caution – A potentially hazardous situation which, if not avoided, may result in minor or moderate injury. It should be used to identify unsafe practices.
- Danger – Immediately hazardous situation which, if not avoided, will result in serious injury or death.
- Warning – A potentially hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could result in serious injury or death.
In order to become an authorized operator of the bucket truck, the University employee must:
- Have the necessary training, including actual operation of the aerial device. The training must include at least the location and understanding of the controls, decals and manuals found on the vehicle and a practical demonstration of knowledge actually using the aerial bucket truck. Certification will be provided to the authorized employee and shall be kept on their person at all times, when operating the equipment.
- Understand the attached, written instructions supplied by the manufacturer, regulatory agencies and the University.
- User / Operator Responsibility - It is the responsibility of the user / operator to read and understand the safety and user’s manual for this vehicle before operating the aerial device. Any questions or concerns can be referred to the Environmental Health and Safety Officer or an authorized representative of Terex. Safety policies and procedures protect the individual operator, the University and the people around you.
- User’s Manual - As required, a copy of the users manual must be kept in the vehicle at all times as a reference guide. The manual shall be placed in the compartment closest to the base controls for the aerial platform, rear compartment at the passenger’s side. Know and follow the established safety rules and regulations for the work environment.
Danger: Use of an aerial bucket truck by unauthorized personnel could result in serious injury or death.
The aerial bucket truck shall have the following equipment and material on board at all times:
- User’s Manual (1)
- Chock blocks (2)
- Fire Extinguisher (ABC) (1)
- Location must be identified on the exterior of the vehicle
- Traffic cones w/ stripes (4)
- First Aid Kit (1)
- Full Body Harness (1)
- Lanyard (1) less than 2 feet in length
- A method to communicate in an emergency
The user / operator of the vehicle shall wear appropriate clothing (e.g., no loose fitting clothing, long hair below the shoulder, and the like must be restrained to prevent accidental introduction into electrical or mechanical equipment).
Safe Work Practices
- Operators shall not wear any loose clothing or any accessory that can catch in moving parts.
- Before machine is started, the operator must walk completely around the machine to ensure everyone and everything is clear of the machine.
- Articulating boom and extendable boom platforms, primarily designed as personnel carriers, shall have both platform (upper) and lower controls. Upper controls shall be in or beside the platform within easy reach of the operator. Lower controls shall provide for overriding the upper controls. Controls shall be plainly marked as to their function. Lower level controls shall not be operated unless permission has been obtained from the employee in the lift, except in case of emergency.
- Modifications and additions that may affect the capacity or safe operation of an aerial/scissor lift are strictly prohibited without the manufacturer’s written approval. Capacity, operation, and maintenance instruction markings will be changed as necessary if the manufacturer approves a modification.
- EHS must be notified before modification takes place.
- The insulated portion (if applicable) of an aerial/scissor lift shall not be altered in any manner that might reduce its insulating value.
- Any signs, plates, or decals which are missing or illegible must be replaced.
- Welding operations on aerial/scissor lifts shall be conducted per the Hot Work Permit Program.
- If the aerial/scissor lift becomes disabled, a “out of service” tag or equivalent shall be attached to the controls inside the platform in a conspicuous location.
- Aerial/scissor lift devices with noted, reported deficiencies shall not be operated until repairs are made and equipment is authorized for use.
Safe Work Practices Before Operation
- Consideration shall be given to the amount of wind. Follow the manufacturer’s instruction regarding operation in windy conditions. As a general rule aerial/scissor lifts shall not be operated in winds exceeding 25 MPH although this can vary depending on the model of equipment.
- Guardrails must be installed and access gates or openings must be closed before raising the platform.
- Boom and platform load limits specified by the manufacturer shall not be exceeded.
- Before moving an aerial/scissor lift for travel, the boom(s) shall be inspected to see that it is properly cradled and outriggers are in stowed position.
- Consideration shall be given to the protection of bystanders via barricading, having another employee keep bystanders at a safe distance or by other means.
- Aerial/scissor lifts shall not be operated from trucks, scaffolds, or similar equipment.
Safe Work Practices During Operation
- Attention shall be given towards the direction of travel, clearances above, below and on all sides.
- Employees shall not sit or climb on the guardrails of the aerial/scissor lift.
- Planks, ladders or other devices shall not be used on the work platform.
- An aerial/scissor lift shall not be moved when the boom is elevated in a working position with employees in the basket, except for equipment which is specifically designed for this type of operation.
- Aerial/scissor lift shall not be placed against another object to steady the elevated platform.
- Aerial/scissor lift shall not be used as a crane or other lifting device.
- Aerial/scissor lift devices shall not be operated on grades, side slopes or ramps that exceed the manufacturer's recommendations.
- The brakes shall be set and outriggers, when used, shall be positioned on pads or a solid surface.
- Speed of aerial/scissor lift devices shall be limited according to the conditions of the ground surface, congestion, visibility, slope, location of personnel and other factors that may cause hazards to other nearby personnel.
- Stunt driving and horseplay shall not be permitted.
- Booms and elevated platform devices shall not be positioned in an attempt to jack the wheels off the ground.
- The area surrounding the elevated platform shall be cleared of personnel and equipment prior to lowering the elevated platform.
- On boom-type machines, drive controls shall not be used to maneuver in close to an obstacle. The swing and boom functions shall be used for maneuvering.
- Operators are to call for assistance if the platform or any part of the machine becomes entangled.
- The operator shall maintain a clear view of the path of travel and a safe distance from other obstacles such as: debris, drop offs, holes, depressions, slopes, and overhead hazards. The following approach distances to energized electrical lines must be maintained:
|Voltage Range (Phase to Phase)||Minimum Safe Approach Distance (feet)|
|0 to 300V||Avoid contact|
|300V to 50 KV||10|
|>50KV to 200KV||15|
|>200KV to 350KV||20|
|>350KV to 500KV||25|
|>500KV to 750KV||35|
|>750KV to 1000KV||45|
- Safe shutdown shall be achieved by utilizing a suitable parking area, placing the platform in the stowed position, placing controls in neutral, idling engine for gradual cooling, turning off electrical power, and taking the necessary steps to prevent unauthorized use.
- Aerial/scissor lifts shall be shut off prior to fueling. Fueling must be completed in well ventilated areas free of flames, sparks or other hazards which may cause fires or explosions.
Safety Inspections and Maintenance
As required, the operator of the vehicle for that particular day shall conduct a safety / “circle check” of the vehicle to determine hazards, identify damage and leaks and report same to the vehicle maintenance supervisor. [Add a link to the Daily Inspection Checklist]
The “daily check” shall include but is not limited to:
a visual inspection of the vehicle exterior, including;
- broken, damaged, loose or missing parts,
- tire bulges, cuts and pressure
- oil and hydraulic leaks
- weld integrity, such as cracks and rust
- lighting (beam, directional and safety)
- all required decals and stickers on or around the articulating boom must be in place, legible and understandable
- The inspection form and the identified deficiencies shall be provided to the Automotive Maintenance Department as soon as possible for corrective action. If no problems have been identified by the user / operator, a copy of the inspection form must be retained for recordkeeping purposes.
The "annual inspection" is perfromed by a certified technician authorized by Terex to inspect, perform scheduled maintenance or repairs on the aerial bucket truck based on OSHA, ANSI and the manufacturer's requirements. The Automotive Vehicle Department will perform scheduled maintenance or repairs on the vehicle only. Copies of all inspections and maintenance of the equipment must be retained for recordkeeping purposes.
The use of fall protection shall be required when the user / operator enters the bucket truck and begins to elevate, regardless of height. The minimum level of fall protection for the bucket truck is a full body harness and lanyard, which can not be longer than 2 feet in length.
- The fall protection device must be properly fastened and comfortably snug.
- Safety Belts are not permitted.
- Additional fall protection and safety requirements include:
- Personnel shall not place any item into the bucket for the purpose of increasing work height. The use of ladders, step stools and similar items are not allowed.
- When using the articulating aerial boom on a permitted incline, the bucket shall be located on the upgrade side, in a stable position.
- If the user / operator is working with their hands above their head, or there is a potential for something to fall from above, the use of head protection (hard hats) is required.
If the user / operator is working in an area where persons shall pass beneath or in close proximity to the truck, then the user / operator shall adequately guard or restrict the area to prevent personal injury in the following ways:
- Caution tape, barricades or rope shall serve the purpose outlined above (e.g., traffic cones alone are not permissible).
- University employees working below the articulating boom must be aware of the overhead hazards and shall wear the appropriate head protection, as required.
- If the user / operator of the bucket truck is operating alone, he/she shall carry a portable radio for emergency situations.
- If working off hours, the user / operator must be in direct contact with the University Police.
Personal Protective Equipment
- Safety Glasses, Goggles or Face Shields may be required
- Head Protection
- Work gloves
- Equipment and tools used on the work site must be compatible with the environment in which they are used.
Prior to starting the vehicle:
- Walk around to verify safe operation.
- Remove cone from the front or rear of the vehicle depending on whether you are backing or heading in a forward direction.
- Whenever possible, a “spotter” shall be used when the vehicle is being set into reverse.
Identify the most level grade from which to operate the vehicle, the slope should not exceed 5 degrees.
- If operation of the bucket must be performed on an incline greater than 5 degrees, then the bucket shall only be used on the high side of the vehicle.
- Set emergency brake, the aerial platform will not operate until the brake has been engaged.
- Position both wheel chocks, place on both sides of the tire.
- Engage the power source:
- Set barricades and cones around the vehicle.
- If the operator will be working in a pedestrian area then barricades, “Caution” tape or fencing shall be utilized (e.g., cones alone are not permitted).
- Verify proper portable radio operation
- Discuss the work to be perfromed with personnel on the ground, they should be made aware of the potential hazards and the risk of injury caused by falling objects such as tree limbs.
- Don the required fall protection and personal protective equipment
- Maintain proper distance from electrical power lines
Do not operate the articulating aerial boom if:
- wind gusts exceed 30 mph
- there is or could be an electrical storm
- Verify that the area under and around the work site is free of passers-by.
- Be aware of overhead clearances (e.g., building design, fixtures and set-up equipment, lights, sprinkler heads, tree limbs, etc.) at all times.
- Special planning for traffic control is necessary on a case by case basis. Maintenance work that takes place either on or near the roadway creates a potentially hazardous situation, which shall require the use of traffic controls. It is the responsibility of the person in charge or their designee to establish and maintain safe and efficient controls.
- All necessary traffic control devices shall be installed before maintenance work begins and must be maintained during the entire work period.
Traffic control devices (e.g., barricades, cones etc.):
- provide drivers with sufficient advanced warning
- provide proper protection for the motorists and pedestrians
- advise motorists of proper travel path
When parked, a cone shall be placed:
- at the rear of the vehicle when the truck will be backed up or out of spot
- at the front of the vehicle when the truck will be driven forward
The speed limit on campus is 20 mph, therefore:
- a minimum of (2) cones shall be placed behind and in front of the bucket truck when use in the street
- cones used for traffic control must be separated by a distance of not less than 10 feet
- User / operators are not permitted to use the lift to gain access to another level. Once in the bucket, you are required to remain until the platform is placed firmly back on the ground.
- Under no circumstances can modifications be made to the articulating aerial boom portion of the vehicle without the expressed written consent of the manufacturer.
- Never attach harnesses or lanyards to an adjacent pole, tree or structure when working in or from an aerial platform.
- Do not lift any equipment or other loads using the aerial platform. The Tetrex articulating aerial boom truck is a personnel lift only.
Elevating Dock Equipment
Elevating Docks are used for unloading materials received by truck. Their safe use is required by employees, delivery personnel and vendors.